psyllium husk

Gluten Free Baking with Gums

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Gluten Free Baking with Gums 

“Baking with gums?” you say. “Why on earth would you bake with GUM!??”

Good question. I’m glad you asked.

We gluten free bakers have to know all about these mysterious “gums” because they replace the gluten in our gluten free recipes. I know it sounds peculiar, but it’s really just a lesson in baking chemistry.

No individual gluten-free flour can replace wheat flour on its own, so we bakers blend several together to mimic wheat’s qualities. One of the trickiest wheat flour attributes to replicate is its stickiness. Its gluten holds food together; without it, you typically wind up with a crumbly mess.

That’s where the gums come in.

Xanthan Gum (zan-than)

This additive is most often used to stand in for the glue-like qualities of gluten. You might have also noticed xanthan gum on ingredient labels of other foods like ice cream, salad dressing, gravies and even toothpaste.

Xanthan gum is a natural soluble fiber carbohydrate that is produced by fermenting a  microorganism (Xanthomonas campestris, in case you need to know) with sugar, most often from corn (no corn remains in the gum).  Xanthan gum is valued because it helps to keep oil and water mixed (hence its benefit in dressings) and also provides binding structure to hold carbon dioxide bubbles inside the food as it is cooking, keeping products like gluten-free bread from falling when removed from the oven.

Xanthan gum is pricey – running $10-$14.00 or so, per 8 ounces. Luckily, we only need a pinch in gluten-free recipes (see chart below).

Guar Gum

Another option is Guar Gum – a powder derived from the seeds of legumes (guar beans) that can add a gumminess to gluten-free baked goods. It has laxative properties though, and some find that they are sensitive to it, or even feel more full from eating products containing guar gum. I find that guar works best in cake recipes, but see the chart below for recommended amounts.

If your all purpose gluten-free flour does not already contain a gum, use this chart as a guide to how much to add in a given type of recipe. If your all purpose gluten-free flour already contains gums, then they have been added in the appropriate general purpose amount — do NOT add more gum – more is not better here! Adding too much gum to your recipe can make it gummy (go figure!).

  • Yeast Breads & Pizza Recipes: 1 1/2 tsp. xanthan gum or 2 tsp. guar gum per cup of gluten-free flour blend
  • Cookies: 1/4 tsp. xanthan gum or 1/2 tsp. guar gum per cup of gluten-free flour blend
  • Cakes: 1/2 tsp. xanthan gum or 3/4 tsp. guar gum per cup of gluten-free flour blend
  • Quick Breads & Muffins: 3/4 tsp. xanthan gum or 1 tsp. guar gum per cup of gluten-free flour blend

Psyllium Husk

Psyllium is a natural fiber derived from the psyllium plant. When added to liquids, psyllium becomes gelatinous and helps baked goods retain moisture. Its ordinary use is as a colon cleanser, but when used in small amounts (2-4 tablespoons), it can offer binding properties in gluten free baking without the tummy upset.

Purchase psyllium in whole husk or powder, but the two are not equivalent; do add powder if a recipe calls for powder, not husk. If a recipe calls for xanthan gum, you may substitute 1 teaspoon of xanthan gum for up to 2 to 3 tablespoons of psyllium powder, depending on the type of recipe.

Psyllium tends to work best in yeast applications like breads and pizza, as well as in homemade pasta recipes. For more information on using psyllium husk or powder in yeast breads, consult this article from my friend Annalise Roberts.


You’ve probably made Jell-O before, or used Knox unflavored gelatin in a recipe. Gelatin has amazing binding properties and can make a good replacement for gluten in certain applications.  Use the amount called for in any given baking recipe, and add in with the dry ingredients.

It is NOT vegan or vegetarian, as gelatin is made from animal bones, hooves and connective tissue. There are some products which are called gelatin and are labeled “vegetarian” or “kosher.” See “pectin,” below.


A vegetarian substitute for gelatin is Pectin. Unlike traditional gelatin, pectin is derived from the peels of apples, plums, cranberries and other citrus. Like gelatin, it can tenderize breads and add stability to baked goods, as well. Add pectin powder with dry ingredients in baking recipes.

Agar Agar

Another vegan alternative to gelatin, Agar Agar is a flavorless combination of dried algae that can be substituted in equal amounts where recipes call for gelatin. Agar agar is used to thicken, gel, stabilize and texturize baked goods, sauces, dressings and some beverages. It comes in powders, flakes, sheets and bars (1 bar equals 4 Tablespoons of flakes or 2 Tablespoons of powder). Generally, 1 Tablespoon agar agar flakes OR 1 teaspoon agar agar powder will thicken 1 cup of liquid. For baking, add with dry ingredients.

Other options to consider for binding: Mung Bean Flour, Pre-Gelled Potato Flour, new Flax-Based Gum Replacers; Modified Tapioca Starch.

Gluten Free Baking with Gums and More - gfJules



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45 thoughts on “Gluten Free Baking with Gums

  1. I Jules, I would like to know, if I make your flour mix recipe, you are saying 3tsp. of guar gum for 4 c. of flour but before was 4 tsp. of guar gum for 4c of flour should I remove 1 tsp of gum? or leave it like it was before. Also love your site and recipes, I’m gonna try this week your bread and pastry they look soo good and yummy, compare to what I have try so far with deception. Thank you for all the work you are doing for all of us it is a lot, but also very appreciated. I will come back to you to let you know about the bread.

    • Hi Danielle, have you tried my ready-made gfJules Flour yet? It takes all the guesswork out of finding a great gluten free blend for every recipe and there’s no measuring or adding gums needed. It’s also made with premium ingredients that aren’t available on store shelves, so you get reliable, delicious results every time! We now sell through so you can get it in Canada without having to pay international shipping.
      If you really want to make your own blend, follow the guidelines for adding gums depending on the kind of recipe you’re making (pizza versus cookies, etc).
      Happy baking!

  2. I am wondering what exactly in your flour mix as I am allergic to soy, almond, flax seed, and any legume flour, such as pea. Makes it hard for me to not only find gluten-free foods, but ones that don’t have the other junk in them, too. The gum, pectian, ang gelatin additives make sense, and are okay. Smart cookie for figuring this tidbit out! Appreciate your help, as I am not out to steal your flour recipe, but just stay healthy eating it. At 75, I’m happy letting others make the mix, as I’ve made my own for years, and yours sounds tops. Thanks for understanding. Linda

  3. Thanks for the quantities to use for different situations. It really is amazing at how big a difference adding the gums makes.

    In some cases, while a product we purchase may already have gums included, we find that the end result is not to our liking. By incorporating additional gum we get the desired result – so experiment!

  4. I enjoy baking, but I feel like a chemist sometimes – using the gums, as well as other ingredients necessary to bake well.

  5. For those who also have MSG sensitivities, know that xanthum gum, guar gum, gelatin and pectin are hidden sources of MSG. I’m going to look into some of the others you mentioned, like the Flax based one. Maybe I can use that one! Thanks for the info!

  6. I had no idea there were other options out there besides Xanthan and Guar for gums in GF baking. Very helpful information, thanks :)